- Global obesity cases have nearly tripled since 1975.
The body mass index or BMI is a good indicator of overweight and obesity: According to medical criteria, the weight is considered “normal” or “ideal” if the body mass index (BMI) of a man or woman is between 18, 5 kg/m² and 25kg/m².
Beyond these criteria, there is no ideal weight for a specific height, it’s all about reaching a weight that we feel comfortable at and that doesn’t endanger our health: it’s called fitness weight. In addition to a balanced diet that allows you to eat healthily and satisfactorily and exert yourself through regular and realistic physical activity, some strategies can be devised to maintain a weight that preserves health problems.
A good strategy is to respect the circadian cycle, which is the human body’s internal clock, by eating meals at the best times. In fact, the rhythm of meals has a direct impact on health and can help synchronize or, on the contrary, disrupt biological clocks.
For example, eating food spread over 24 hours desynchronizes the peripheral clocks, which allows the metabolism to be regulated, especially at night. Diet is of great importance in maintaining this rhythm: in mice, regular meals or meals limited to part of the day protect against obesity.
According to a study in which researchers compared the weight loss of 80 overweight or obese women ages 18 to 45 who ate the same number of calories, women who ate their largest meal at lunch lost an average of 1 .3 kg more than those who ate their main meal in the evening. After 12 weeks of study, the group whose main meal was dinner lost 4.3 kg, while the group whose main meal was lunch lost more than 5.5 kg, while reducing sensitivity to insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar regulated, improved
Choosing a balanced lunch as the main meal of the day also helps avoid afternoon snacks. In concrete terms, respecting the internal clock when organizing meals would be just as important as paying attention to the quality of the diet and this is exactly what chrononutrition allows, which invites you to think about what you eat depending on the time of day.
Fat and high protein breakfast
According to the principles of chrono-nutrition, the body needs energy during the day, but the digestive enzymes are not available at all times of the day. It is therefore necessary to prioritize a high-fat and high-protein breakfast, since insulin is not available in the morning to digest carbohydrate-rich foods.
A study also showed that eating a high-protein breakfast was associated with lower fat intake and a reduction in daily consumption and hunger compared to a regular breakfast. Protein may also promote weight loss by lowering levels of ghrelin, the “hunger hormone” responsible for increased appetite.
A study of 15 men showed that a high-protein breakfast was more effective at suppressing ghrelin secretion than a high-carb breakfast. By the same principles, it is preferable to consume both carbohydrate and protein foods (nuts and seeds) between meals to break the natural insulin peak that occurs between 4:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m., leading to sweet eating and weight gain.
And in the evening it is necessary to avoid a long digestion and an overload of toxins, so it is preferable to give preference to a light and vegetarian meal.
Light is also essential for the correct synchronization of the biological clock: daylight during the day and darkness at night allow the biological clock to be synchronized with the 24-hour day.
It’s also an ally for maintaining an ideal weight: one study found that even moderate exposure to light at certain times of the day can have an impact on weight. In addition, sun exposure is also the best way to meet your vitamin D needs, which can help with weight loss and even prevent weight gain.
In one study, 218 obese and overweight women took vitamin D supplements or a placebo for a year. At the end of the study, those who met their vitamin D requirements had lost an average of 3.2 kg more than those whose blood levels of vitamin D were insufficient. Another study followed 4,659 older women over four years and found that higher vitamin D levels were associated with less weight gain… good reason to enjoy sunny days even more!
Increase your water consumption
Another simple reflex: increase your water consumption. In fact, most studies on the subject have shown that drinking 1 to 2 liters of water a day can help you lose weight. Drinking water can help increase the number of calories your body burns for at least 60 minutes: Drinking 500ml of water results in an average 30% increase in metabolic rate.
Another study found that overweight women who increased their water intake to more than 34 ounces (one liter) per day lost an additional 2 kg in a year without making any other changes to their diet or lifestyle. In addition, water can reduce appetite and food intake in some people: A study of 24 older adults showed that drinking 16.9 fluid ounces (500 ml) of water reduced the number of calories consumed at breakfast by 13%.