the limits of vaccination

The epidemic recurrence of Covid-19 by variants BA.4 and BA.5 worries health authorities, who are launching a fourth vaccination campaign. However, vaccination itself could promote infection. Explanations.

The risks of compulsory vaccination for everyone

Jean-Marc Sabatier, you have just co-authored a well-documented article in a scientific journal that seems to show that anti-Covid vaccination would promote the emergence of the infection in certain cases. Is that the case?

Jean Marc Sabatier (DR)
Jean Marc Sabatier (DR)

In fact, multiple injections of anti-Covid-19 vaccines not only promote the production of neutralizing antibodies against the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Certain antibodies directed against this spike protein can be facilitators, that is, on the contrary, they can facilitate the infection of people injected according to a phenomenon called ADE (“antibody-dependent enhancement” or facilitation of antibody-dependent vaccination /were vaccinated infection).
These multiple vaccine injections can also cause exacerbated infection of the injected/vaccinated individuals (in the event of subsequent infection with a variant of SARS-CoV-2) via a broader phenomenon called ERD (enhanced respiratory disease). ), which does not necessarily depend on the production of mediating antibodies.
Mechanisms such as the onset or exacerbation of the cytokine storm and cell-mediated immunopathology are also involved in DRE. Thus, the ADE/ERD phenomena promote the infectious process and the harmful effects of the virus.
The risks associated with these phenomena after multiple vaccinations are very real and have already been described for many viruses, including the coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and FIP (feline infectious peritonitis), as well as for dengue, Zika , HIV, Ebola and measles viruses.

So booster shots aren’t necessarily a good thing?

When ADE/ERD phenomena exist for a particular variant of SARS-CoV-2, viral infection (by that variant) is facilitated by injected/vaccinated individuals (these individuals are more easily infected with the virus), and this facilitated infection can result more serious Covid-19 diseases than if these people had not been injected.
The article published by Guérin and collaborators strongly suggests that new variants of SARS-CoV-2 (including Omicron and its subvariants from BA.2 to BA.5) could promote these undesirable phenomena of ADE or even l ‘ERD, what noting that multiple vaccine boosters are not desirable as they are potentially harmful in case of subsequent infection (to these vaccine boosters must be added the dangers of direct toxicity of the vaccine spike protein and the adjuvants of these vaccines, including lipid nanoparticles from messenger RNA vaccines). .

-What is this mechanism of neutralizing antibodies and promoting antibodies?

During an infection with SARS-CoV-2 or an anti-Covid-19 vaccination, our body produces antibodies directed against the proteins of the virus (in the case of infection with SARS-CoV-2, or vaccination with inactivated viruses) or antibodies directed specifically against the spike protein (in current messenger RNA vaccines, viral vectors, or recombinant spike protein). The antibodies produced fall into three categories: neutralizing antibodies (these antibodies are desirable because they block viral infection), neutral antibodies (these antibodies have no a priori effect on viral infection), and supportive antibodies (these antibodies are undesirable because they facilitate viral infection). Infection).
If the vaccinated person is subsequently infected with a variant of SARS-CoV-2 that “responds” to the ADE/ERD phenomena, the mediating antibodies already present bind to the SARS-CoV-2 and facilitate the infection of the cells by the SARS-CoV-2 Virus. In fact, phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, etc.) have a receptor (called Fc-gamma-RIIa) capable of recognizing the antibodies bound to the virus particle, allowing these cells to be infected by internalizing the complex virus -Antibody.

We are at the very beginning of summer 2022 with the BA.4 and BA.5 variants of SARS-CoV2 spreading through the population. Are they more virulent than the previous ones?

Data on emerging SARS-CoV-2 subvariants BA.4 and BA.5 are still patchy, especially in humans live. These viruses appear to be about 8% (BA.4) and 12% (BA.5) more contagious in France than the BA.2 subvariant of the 6ᵉ wave (late March to mid-April 2022). These viruses also appear to be four times more resistant to neutralizing antibodies than the BA.2 subvariant. Although not very virulent and deadly, these viruses could replicate with greater efficiency (compared to the BA.2 subvariant) in human lung cells.

In veterinary medicine, it has been observed that cats vaccinated against feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) coronavirus show more pronounced clinical signs after infection than unvaccinated control cats. Can we transpose for humans?

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease in cats caused by a coronavirus such as SARS-CoV-2. These are two coronaviruses that belong to separate but related families.
FIP virus is contagious to cats but cannot be transmitted to other species (including humans). FIP viruses are enteric corona viruses that have become pathogenic through mutation(s). The pathologies associated with FIP ​​are similar to the Covid-19 diseases. PIF and SARS-CoV-2 attack the host’s renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and target feline and human AT1R receptors, respectively.
There have been attempts to vaccinate cats with inactivated FIP virus or a vaccine candidate based on a recombinant vaccinia vector expressing the FIP virus spike protein. But this vaccination did not protect them from vaccination with the virulent FIP ​​virus via the oral route. On the contrary, vaccinated cats became infected more easily than unvaccinated cats.
This lack of protection suggests the existence of the ADE phenomenon with the presence of supportive antibodies. These assisting antibodies allow the virus to better enter target cells. This mechanism, which favors the infection of cells by the virus, would prove problematic if detected during multiple booster vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2. Transmission to humans is theoretically possible due to the constant emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2.

After all, we are down to four doses of the Covid vaccine in less than a year. Isn’t there a serious risk of undermining the patient’s natural immunity?

Vaccination against Covid-19 with multiple boosters should induce acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS (this is an immune syndrome unrelated to HIV) in individuals who have received multiple injections/vaccinations. In fact, a certain proportion of the spike protein produced by vaccines (mRNA and viral vector vaccines) or contained in vaccines (inactivated viral vaccines or recombinant spike protein) may be able to reach ACE2 receptor target cells bind, since the SARS-CoV-2 virus does.
Interacting with the ACE2 receptor of cells, the vaccine spike protein will provoke the same harmful effects as the virus, that is, dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin system RAS (this is an essential ubiquitous physiological system for the functioning of organs and tissues of the human body). The RAS controls innate immunity via the AT1R receptor coupled to toll-like receptors to recognize molecular patterns. The dysfunction of the RAS is therefore accompanied by a disturbance in the innate immunity that drives it.
Innate immunity (which is non-specific to a microbe) is responsible for the subsequent triggering of adaptive/acquired immunity (which is specific to a microbe) based on T and B lymphocytes generalized dysregulation of the immune system.
Finally, repeated vaccine injections, can lead to the onset of AIDS in people who have been injected/vaccinated multiple times. Furthermore, it has been reported that repeated vaccine injections of the same antigen, whatever it is (here the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2), at concentrations exceeding the “critical” threshold, inevitably lead to dysregulation of innate immunity and the occurrence of possible autoimmune diseases. Therefore, for the current anti-Covid-19 vaccines, there are at least three good scientific reasons not to proceed with multiple vaccine injections, with (1) the direct and detrimental effect of the spike protein on the ARS and innate immunity (2) the recurrence of these injections, which also disrupts the host’s innate immunity, and (3) the potentially deleterious effects of certain adjuvants, including lipid nanoparticles.

* Jean-Marc Sabatier is Research Director at CNRS and PhD in Cellular Biology and Microbiology. He speaks on his own behalf here.

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